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Water & Energy











Energy
Since 1986 Thailand’s energy consumption has shown a dramatic rise year-on –year. Measured in BBL/day equivalent (barrels of crude oil) total commercial consumption has increased almost 5-fold from 337,889 in 1986 to 1,604,607 in 2007. Production of energy has also increased from 151,549 to 793,721, mainly natural gas and crude oil. Renewable energy like hydro power remains underutilized.

Overview Thailand commercial primary energy production (BBL/day equivalent) 1986 – 2007:

Energy source

1986

1990

2000

2005

2006

2007

Crude oil

20,039

23,968

57,937

113,890

128,950

134,563

Condensate

12,983

17,538

47,528

63,243

68,488

71,760

Natural gas

62,886

113,361

350,069

411,849

422,782

451,905

Lignite

31,085

73,846

106,981

128,687

109,598

100,152

Hydro

24,556

21,752

26,081

25,175

35,291

35,341

Total

151,549

250,465

588,596

742,884

765,109

793,721



Overview Thailand commercial primary energy consumption (BBL/day equivalent) 1986 - 2007:

Energy source

1986

1990

2000

2005

2006

2007

Petroleum products

218,092

386,018

578,832

689,418

672,631

664,890

Natural gas

62,886

113,361

379,610

565,854

579,007

614,667

Coal

2,773

4,265

52,177

107,157

143,145

181,591

Lignite

28,434

73,921

102,586

124,723

107,663

100,418

Hydro & imported electricity

25,704

22,907

31,169

32,669

44,164

43,041

Total

337,889

600,472

1,144,374

1,519,821

1,546,610

1,604,607



Production statistics in BBL/day (crude oil equivalent) 1st 11 months 2008 vs. 2006 and 2007:

Segment

2006

2007

2008

Crude oil

129,944

134,151

143,129

Natural Gas

423,816

452,897

495,861

Lignite

110,569

101,020

97,248

Hydro

34,963

34,928

30,589

Total

768,297

794,670

845,043



Consumption statistics in BBL/day (crude oil equivalent) 1st 11 months 2008 vs. 2006 and 2007:

Segment

2006

2007

2008

Petroleum products

675,097

666,197

632,699

Natural Gas

581,326

617,124

647,575

Coal

139,214

181,972

207,752

Lignite

108,223

100,564

103,373

Hydro & Imported elec.

43,930

42,562

35,562

Total

1,547,790

1,601,941

1,626,961



Structurally Thailand foresees for 50% in its own energy needs. The country has certain proved reserves of fossile fuels but these are dwindling fast.

Energy sources reserves:

Energy source

Reserves (2006)

Depleted by (year)

Crude oil (barrel)

195 million

2009-2010

Condensate (barrel equivalent)

266 million

2016

Natural gas (m3)

316,000

2020

Lignite (millions of ton)

2,081

2116



It concerns here proven reserves. In case probable reserves prove to be existant and expoitable than the country has natural gas reserves for another generation to enjoy. New crude oil reserves are almost non-existant though.

Based on proved reserves by 2020 Thailand will need to import almost 100% of its energy needs. The country’s Board of Investment (BoI) is therefore heavily promoting investment incentives aimed at the development of alternative energy sources.


Water
Most area’s of Thailand have access to sufficient water supplies. Adequate monsoon rains and the river systems of the central heartland provide most of the country’s water resources. Some area’s though suffer yearly from moderate to severe droughts such as the Northeast part of the country and the Eastern Seaboard area. Rapidly urbanizing parts of Thailand such as Pattaya in Chonburi province (part of the Eastern Seaboard area) are putting enormous strains on their traditional water resources with water shortages rapidly increasing.

As Thailand’s agriculture is more than capable of feeding the national population the country is under no pressure to increase its agricultural aerial thus avoiding having to allocate large quantities of (scarce) water resources to food production.

In 1997 Thailand formed its National Water Vision Statement resulting in a National Water Policy encompassing a 9-point policy. The government’s policy moved from water resource development i.e. finding new water resources to water resource management. The National Water Vision Statement reads: "By the year 2025, Thailand will have sufficient water of good quality for all users through efficient management and an organizational and legal system that will ensure equitable and sustainable use of water resources, with due consideration for the quality of life and the participation of all stakeholders."

With assistance of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) River Basin Organizations (RBO’s) were created. In the area of water management RBO’s offered the opportunity to institutionalize the experiments that Thailand had been taking in grassroots governance of water usage. The administration of each of the 29 individual RBO’s consists of 15 government members, 15 stakeholder representatives and 5 members for NGOs and academics.

Source energy statistics: Energy Policy and Planning Office, Ministry of Energy, Thailand